XII. Inhabitants of the hillfort

During the period of the greatest development of the Santok gord – that is at the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries – up to 1,000 people could live there.

The average height of an adult male was approx. 168 cm, and female – approx. 160 cm. Most of the time, members of the then elite were taller.

Life expectancy ranged from 19 to 25 years. However, if this result is corrected with data related to the high mortality rate of newborns and children under 6, its value increases to 30-32 years for women and 33-36 years for men. Thus, women tended to live shorter lives. The reason for this was their high mortality rate during childbirth. An estimated 6% of the population was over 50 years of age.

Appearance and clothing of the inhabitants of the city

Men generally had hair down to their ears or longer. Having a beard and mustache depended on personal taste. Women wore long hair. Married women covered them with a scarf, while unmarried women went without a cover, or they decorated their heads with e.g. wreaths.

The basic men’s attire was a coloured or natural linen shirt with narrow sleeves, long to mid-thigh. It was girded with a leather belt with a buckle or selvedges or hemp ropes. Since pockets were not known, belts were extremely important elements of both men’s and women’s clothing. Various types of pouches were hung on them – e.g., with flint, whetstone, knife.

Simple trousers, e.g., pants or leggings, were pulled on the legs. They were single legs resembling stockings, joined at a common belt or tied at the thigh. Short pants were pulled under them. Calves and feet were tied with wide bands, often reinforced with leather straps or thin ribbons.

Ordinary day

XIII. On cold days, people wore woolen coats or sheepskin coats. The wealthier also wore furs. In the summer, hats woven from reeds were worn. Felt hats, fur hats and hoods were common. The outfit was complemented by buckles, pins, buttons, as well as various amulets – e.g., a bear’s claw or a beaver’s tooth.

Women’s clothing consisted mainly of simple dresses. One – shorter and without sleeves – ended below the knees and was a form of underwear. The second one, reaching to the ankles and with long narrow sleeves, was worn as an outer garment. Sometimes it had additional hems on the edges, made with strips of fabric of a different colour, embroidery or selvedges. A characteristic element of clothing was the apron – an apron worn over a skirt. Women also wore buckles, pins, buttons, hetki. Their heads were decorated with silver, iron or copper rings attached to cloth bands. They put earrings on their ears. The costumes were decorated with beads and plates, and rings were worn on the hands- mainly glass or silver. The jewelery was complemented by necklaces made of glass, clay or amber beads, carnelian and rock crystal.

Shoes were made of cowhide or goathide. It was low, reaching just above the ankle. The shoes had a variety of cuts and were made in different ways. Shoes worn by the wealthier were sometimes additionally decorated – with embroidery, studs, various applications, etc. Among the general public, bast shoes (usually linden or elm), straw or a single piece of leather tied with thongs were probably common. In winter, the shoes were additionally insulated with pieces of linen cloth, wool or straw.